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This video doesn’t replace life modules and doesn’t count for certification.
Golgi Tendon Organs are one of the most important neurological structures in the body. They are found in ligaments, tendons, fascia, scars, and the lining of organs alike. They constantly provide the CNS with feedback about information regarding the tension in muscles and connective tissue. The stimulation of GTO’s contributes to regular patterns of locomotion and allows us to thoroughly breakdown the neurology of gait. Learn the neurological pathway as well as the proper, opposite, and anti stimulus for these receptors. See examples of multiple patterns, including both basic/multi mode as well as hyper mode level dysfunctions.
GTO’s hold the key to many protective responses of the body. Cover how GTO’s interact with and modulate muscles, ligaments, and joint capsules. Understand how to readily employ these protective responses to quickly assess for hypertonicity of any muscle in the body.
GTO’s are of two different variants: capsular and non-capsular. These variants each follow their own afferent pathways and as such have unique qualities and behave differently when stimulated. Learn how to manipulate each of these variants and differentiate functional from dysfunctional responses.
Every fiber of a specific ligament is related to a specific muscle. Therefore, every GTO rich ligament has it’s own list of related muscles. This segment will guide you through a complete overview of how to stimulate the major ligaments of the body as well as provide you with their related muscles to assess for dysfunction. This includes the unique presentation of the talus as well as the ever-important ligaments of the spine, posterior and anterior pelvis, hip complex, knee, plantar aspect of the foot, and shoulder complex.
In this segment we take an in depth look at the biomechanics of gait, specifically focusing on the step-by-step loading of the foot and sequential stimulation of GTO’s of the foot and ankle. As part of the examination of these GTO’s, we will look to their related muscles for indications of function or dysfunction. This is one of the first concepts in which we can begin to hone in on visual skills and practice observing normotonic responses as well as aberrant ones such as inhibition, hypertonicity, and switching. Begin to learn how to ‘see’ and properly assess gait to drastically streamline assessment time.
The sacrum is perhaps the most common location to find high value GTO dysfunctions. Pelvic Categories refer to distinct divisions of GTO’s located around each portion of the sacrum. These divisions consist of Category I, Category II, and Category III dysfunctions, with Category II being further divided up into Cat II si posterior ilium, Cat II si posterior ilium, and Cat II sp symphysis pubis. While not a true Pelvic Category, this segment also covers the concept of Sacral Distortion, looking at the relationship between the sacrum and cervical spine.
For each Pelvic Category these videos will define the location of the corresponding GTO’s, whether they follow capsular or non-capsular rules, as well as covering classic signs and symptoms and providing full lists of related muscles. Each descriptive section is followed by a practical demonstration of how to implement and apply the aforementioned concepts.
• Gait Inhibition
• PALO Alto
• TS Line
When poor gait mechanics are observed and symptoms increase in severity and/or reemerge upon walking, the concepts of Gait Inhibition, PALO Alto, and PiLUS should always be considered and evaluated.
Normal gait patterns continually warrant the facilitation of some as well as the inhibition of other muscles to allow proper motion to occur. After injury or fatigue sets in, this normal process of Gait Inhibition may not occur and muscles that should inhibit during gait remain facilitated. This segment will demonstrate how to assess for patterns that are evident only during gait and may otherwise go unchecked.
PALO Alto testing assess for the coordination between contralateral upper and lower body limbs in various planes of motion. While a muscle or movement may be perfectly functional in isolation, it may show an aberrant response when working in conjunction with the rest of the body in a gait like fashion. Learn how to locate these dysfunctions and treat the corresponding causative receptors located on the foot of the ipsilateral lower body limb.
PiLUS, an acronym standing for piriformis, iliacus, latissimus dorsi, upper trap, and sternocleidomastoid, is indicated in any situation where overstress on the dura is present. Building off the original hypotheses of Illi and Kapanji, the concept of PiLUS states that each muscle in it’s acronym should naturally inhibit with the patient in over 20 degrees of flexion or extension to avoid overstress on the dura. This effect is seen due to the opening of the pars articularis of L5/S1.
When working with Golgis, the Temporal Sphenoidal line can provide a convenient alternative as a proxy for the Main Secondary. Learn how to utilize the TS line as both a new diagnostic and treatment tool.
Pacinian corpusles are subcutaneous mechanoreceptors that are first and foremost, pressure receptors. When utilized as a functional tool, they have the ability to downregulate sympathetic activity and serve as anti stimulus for nocioceptors. However, like all sensory receptors, they may also become dysfunctional, rendering the patient hypersensitive to any external pressures applied.
Vibratory receptors are mechanoreceptors as well, located at various depths. This segment explores Ruffinis, Meissners, and Krauses, three of the most common vibratory receptors. Cover the specific frequency at which to excite each receptor as well as the most common locations for each.
Learn the neurological pathway as well as the proper, opposite, and anti stimulus for both Pacini and Vibratory receptors. See examples of multiple patterns for each, including both basic/multi mode as well as hyper mode level dysfunctions.
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